Created for Immortality


“God did not make death,
Neither does He have pleasure over
the destruction of the living.

For He created all things that they
might exist,
And the generations of the world so
they might be preserved
For there was no poison of death in them,
Nor was the reign of Hades on the earth.

For God created man for immortality
And made him an image of His
own eternity,
But death entered the world by the
envy of the devil,
And those of his portion tempt it”

(Wisdom 1:13-15; 2:23-24).

This is a most edifying oracle, offering truth about the nature and destiny of mankind. How wonderful that we are meant for “immortality,” for eternal life! But what characterizes this mysterious state of existence, which philosophers and sages have so long pondered? The Logos Himself reveals: “And this is life eternal, that they might know You the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent” (John 17:3).

We notice right away that eternal life is qualitative rather than quantitative. It is a relationship. To have eternal life is to have knowledge of God, and knowledge in the Biblical worldview is not mere mental comprehension, but rather intimate communion. Thus eternal life is highly personal: loving fellowship with the infinite and thrice-holy Godhead.

Death, then, is rupture in the relationship between God and man. Man’s existence is sustained by spiritual proximity to the Deity, the Fountain of Being. The creature’s existence diminishes the further he moves from the nourishing presence of the Creator, the Living One, who alone can say, “I AM.”

Scripture makes clear that we were not, and are not, intended to live apart from God. Our first parents—though creatures of flesh summoned from dust—enjoyed eternal life by virtue of their fellowship with God. When they succumbed to temptation, they forfeited this gift, this heavenly blessing, this unique estate that had been theirs to treasure. Though the Divine Image still flickered in their hearts, they were evermore consumed by sin and death, by corruption and base carnality, and they descended to the level of irrational beasts. Instead of peaceable life on earth followed by perfect bliss in heaven, man’s existence became a bitter struggle that led only to the terrible abyss of death.

As St. Athanasius explains with powerful clarity:

“Upon men who, as animals, were essentially impermanent, He bestowed a grace which other creatures lacked—namely the impress of His own Image, a share in the reasonable being of the very Word Himself, so that, reflecting Him and themselves becoming reasonable and expressing the Mind of God even as He does, though in limited degree they might continue forever in the blessed and only true life of the saints in paradise … He set them in His own paradise, and laid upon them a single prohibition. If they guarded the grace and retained the loveliness of their original innocence, then the life of paradise should be theirs, without sorrow, pain or care, and after it the assurance of immortality in heaven …

But men, having turned from the contemplation of God to evil of their own devising, had come inevitably under the law of death. Instead of remaining in the state in which God had created them, they were in process of becoming corrupted entirely, and death had them completely under its dominion. For the transgression of the commandment was making them turn back again according to their nature; and as they had at the beginning come into being out of non-existence, so were they now on the way to returning, through corruption, to non-existence again. The presence and love of the Word had called them into being; inevitably, therefore when they lost the knowledge of God, they lost existence with it” (On the Incarnation, 1:3, 4).

If immortality comes through fellowship with the Divine, death comes through collaboration with the Diabolical. That word, “diabolical,” comes from the Greek dia ballein, literally “to throw apart.” Estrangement from God and one another is death, and death is estrangement from God and one another. Bishop Sheen used to remark that fallen man is estranged even from himself, as symbolized by the Gadarene demoniac, who speaks in both the singular and plural (cf. Mark 5:1-20).

So estrangement equals death. On the other hand, communion yields life. Whereas estrangement comes from pride and hate, communion comes from humility and love. Thus we read in Scripture:

“And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted Him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself” (Luke 10:25-27).

John Zizioulas, an Orthodox metropolitan, wrote a book called Being as Communion. The title alone could be pondered for a lifetime. It gets to the heart of reality, both human and Divine. Zizioulas writes, “The life of God is eternal because it is personal, that is to say, it is realized as an expression of free communion, as love. Life and love are identified in the person: the person does not die only because it is loved and loves; outside the communion of love the person loses its uniqueness, and becomes a being like other beings, a “thing” without absolute “identity” and “name,” without a face” (pg. 49).

Existence is the measure of one’s fellowship-in-charity with God and, through God, with one’s neighbor. As Christians, we are united in the Body of Christ, and Christ is united with the Godhead. “But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God” (I Corinthians 11:3).

Personhood, born only of communion, is perfected only in communion. In the end, the entire cosmos, recreated in glory, will be united in the infinite splendor of the Living God, so that “God may be all in all” (I Corinthians 15:28).  “And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me” (John 12:32). Then every creature which God has saved, linked to all the others in the Spirit of Peace, will truly flourish.

(As for the specter of damnation, we can only hope with Hans Urs von Balthasar that all are saved. Indeed, St. Gregory of Nyssa tells us, “For it is evident that God will in truth be all in all when there shall be no evil in existence, when every created being is at harmony with itself and every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord; when every creature shall have been made one body” Catechetical Orations, 26.)

As the Word created us in the first place, it is right that He should heal the spiritual disease that we have acquired through wickedness and ignorance. The “presence and love” of the Logos called us into being, and even now He brings abundant life, that we might be raised into glory and become “partakers of the Divine Nature” (II Peter 1:4).


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  • I believe you are indulging in wishful thinking if you think that all will be saved. Hell could in principle be empty, but we have been told at Fatima and elsewhere that “souls are falling into Hell like snowflakes.” It seems unwise to me to ignore the witness of approved private revelation in this matter.

    Myself, I’d like to see all the villains (including very many ordinary people, like maybe your next-door neighbor) confined to a church basement to play pinochle for all eternity. They’ll get the message eventually: they’re losers! But a belief like that about the nature of Hell would contradict Revelation. Hell is a place of horrific, eternal suffering.

    I recommend an article written by my old spiritual director, Fr. Paul Raftery, O.P., about the nature of Hell. You can find it here –

    I believe a lot of people don’t want to talk about Hell because they’re afraid of going there themselves. In my own prayer life I’ve learned that if you have this fear, the time to address it is NOW. With God’s help you can overcome whatever obstacles exist to your relationship with Him, and then you will be able to live without fear and instead in moral assurance of eternal happiness. Much better deal, yes?

  • Philip Primeau


    Thank you for taking the time to read and respond.

    As for the matter of hell, I do not think I am engaging in wishful thinking so much as hopeful thinking. This golden thread of hope weaves its way through the tapestry of Catholic theology, and I am not willing to pluck it out.

    I realize that some saints have spoken with great certainty about hell, and its crowded caverns and tightly packed chambers. However, there are also more optimistic voices, especially from the east.

    Hell is a fearsome thing, and we do wrong if we speak of it too lightly. I certainly do not deny its reality, that would be the height of folly. But I do cling to hope, that I might have the strength to pray for the whole world.

    I appreciate the comments!

  • Philip Primeau


    I’ve continued to think about your objections, and I must agree that it would be imprudent to scorn the prophetic utterance of so holy a woman as St. Faustina. Her words must be kept close to the heart, which is always quick to wander from the straight path of godliness.

    However, it cannot be denied that it would be similarly unwise to spurn outright those giants of the faith who nurtured such hope in their hearts, however cautiously or partially. Their host includes Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzen, Macrina the Younger, Origen, Diodore of Tarsus, Clement of Alexandria, Didymus of Alexandria, Juliana of Norwich, John Scotus Erigena, Isaac of Nineveh, and Maximus the Confessor.

    Some of these pious and prayerful souls are condemned — yet others are the very paragons of orthodoxy. Those who remained squarely in the orthodox camp — with the likely exceptions of Gregory of Nyssa and his beloved sister, Macrina — were quick to qualify their hope, yet that sense of “cosmic optimism” remained prominent.

    I am but a humble amateur next to these athletes of the Church. I resolve to learn from all while dismissing none. Ultimately, I have confidence that human freedom and Divine providence are mysteriously yet thoroughly compatible, and thus “all will be well,” as the good Lord sees fit.

    • Even holy souls can be wrong. The Magisterium is the only sure guide. “The teaching of the Church affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, ‘eternal fire.’ The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs” (CCC, 1035).