Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address

Abraham Lincoln, February 5, 1865, by Alexander Gardner

Abraham Lincoln, February 5, 1865, by Alexander Gardner

The One Hundred Fiftieth Anniversary

This portrait of Pres. Abraham Lincoln, taken four weeks before his second inauguration as President of the United States, shows us how he looked at the time. It is among a handful of photographs taken by Alexander Gardner in his studio in Washington, DC, February 5, 1865. (For decades, the photographs had been dated erroneously to April 10th.) They are among the very few photos of Lincoln in which can be detected even a hint of a trace of a smile. His bow-tie is askew, betraying his lackadaisical attitude towards his attire; his left hand is slightly blurry: he was fidgeting with the spectacles he was holding in his lap.

Nearly three decades had passed since the United States had conducted a second presidential inauguration: Andrew Jackson had been the last previous president elected to the office twice, in 1836. Lincoln delivered his Second Inaugural Address on March 4, 1865, immediately before taking the oath of office for the second time, administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, Salmon P. Chase, holding an open Bible.

Here is the text of the speech as Lincoln read it from a one-page typescript:

Fellow Countrymen:

At this second appearing to take the oath of the presidential office, there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement, somewhat in detail, of a course to be pursued, seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention, and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself; and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.

On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil-war. All dreaded it — all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war — seeking to dissolve the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.

One eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the Southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was, somehow, the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union, even by war; while the government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war, the magnitude, or the duration, which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with, or even before, the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. “Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh!” If we shall suppose that American Slavery is one of those offences which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South, this terrible war, as the woe due to those by whom the offence came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a Living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope — fervently do we pray — that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue, until all the wealth piled by the bond-man’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash, shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said “the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether.”

With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan — to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.

Pres. Lincoln quoted the Bible twice: Matthew 18:7 and Psalm 19:9. Chief Justice Chase pointed out later that, for his oath, Lincoln had opened the Bible to the fifth chapter of Isaiah in which verses 27-28 were marked with pencil. It’s easy to see why that entire passage, and those two verses especially, were on Lincoln’s mind as he was concluding his first term in office, the country was entering the fifth Spring of the war, and Lincoln finally felt sure its end was near.

After the inauguration ceremony, a gathering was held at the White House, during which Lincoln is said to have shaken hands with 6,000 well-wishers. One of them, well-known former slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass, told him, “Mr. Lincoln, that was a sacred effort.”

Only six weeks later, Abraham Lincoln would lie on his deathbed in a borrowed room in William Petersen’s boarding house.

Typescript Lincoln Used Giving Speech

Typescript Lincoln Used Giving Speech

For a more in-depth treatment of the speech, see the lengthy discussion, including comments, here: Why Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address is poetry….


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  • Randall Ward

    In this speech Lincoln puts himself in the place of God, and Lincoln pretends to know what God thinks of his war. It is almost unbelievable that anyone can read the speech and not see just how Lincoln is full of himself.
    Since any student of the war knows that Lincoln had no love of black people, the idea that Lincoln believed that God was behind the war and the “freeing” of the slaves is astounding.
    All over the world, since 1861 there have been wars that brought nothing but killing and destruction, just like Lincolns war, and does anyone think God was behind them?
    Slavery was ended all over the world without wars, and could have been ended in the USA the same way. Lincolns war was not about slavery, but about realizing Lincolns lifelong dream of converting the USA from a Republic of States, into one State with a very strong US government at the head. The Godless state we now live in had its beginning in 1861, and on it goes.

    • hiernonymous

      When you witness a rape, there’s no sense in getting the police involved, with all that nasty coercion and potential for violence, because you know that the rape is eventually going to end without police intervention, right? And the rapist will eventually resolve the issues that cause him to do this – or, at least, he’ll get too old to be able to. So if you try to interfere, God would disapprove. That about right?

    • ELC

      You: “Slavery was ended all over the world without wars, and could have been ended in the USA the same way.” Talk about putting oneself in the place of God….

      • Randall Ward

        Lincoln pretended to speak for God. I spoke for myself.
        If many other countries do something, there is no reason the USA can’t do the same thing. Just basic logic.
        You will have to try a little harder to find something wrong with my post.

        • ELC

          You assumed omniscience for yourself. Because some countries do something does not mean that others can, may, or will do it. Just basic psychology and sociology. (Your mistake here is thinking that logic explains human behavior.)

          Lincoln did not pretend to speak for God. He pointed out that viewing the war as divine punishment for the sins of the nation is consonant with how those in the Judeo-Christian tradition have always looked at major events. (Whether they do so correctly or accurately is another question.) A well-educated and thoughtful atheist could make the same points that Lincoln made.

          I think Lincoln’s observation is correct, and you are quite free to disagree with him and with me. But you didn’t simply disagree: you either misrepresented or misunderstood what he did.

          I am not a student of the war: I am a student of Lincoln. His “love” or not for any people is completely irrelevant: he hated slavery, if for no other reason than he himself lived effectively as a slave for several years. Nor did he have any such “lifelong dream” except in the fantasies of his detractors.

          • Randall Ward

            From first Inaugural address, March 4, 1861; “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.”

          • ELC

            A well-educated and thoughtful atheist could have made the same points Lincoln did in his 2nd inaugural. Right?

          • Randall Ward

            I give you facts; quotes from Lincoln himself and you come back with what? Nothing. I have a book with everything Lincoln ever wrote and I have read a lot of it. The real Lincoln is much different from the liberal history books about Lincoln. For instance there are many news outlets and net sites that celebrate Lincolns second Inaugural address, but none of the sites actually have the address itself, and it is quite short. They talk about the address, because to publish the address and have people read it, would not actually help the Lincoln idealists cause.
            In his first speech to the joint congress, Lincoln said the USA would need to acquire new territory to have a place to move the slaves and free blacks and he asked the congress to work on it.

  • goral

    History, over time, has a cleansing effect on information that is given by historians.
    History is also kinder to those who control that information. Certainly, history has been kind to Lincoln and his cause has always been considered as the higher ground.
    Nevertheless, we also know that historians can be liars or at least somewhat partial. The Confederates lost the war they were destined to loose. Having slavery as the issue on which the Union made a call to arms almost guaranteed its victory.
    I don’t think there’s a debater out there who would take up the argument that the finest officer of the Civil War, Gen. Robert E. Lee took his army to battle so that the South could preserve slavery by any means.
    The politics of that war are still topics for debate. Lincoln is considered by some to have usurped power as he suspended the Constitution in part.
    He is one president that the current usurper in office uses as an example.

    I would have to say that Randall Ward makes a fair point that slavery would have died a natural death, probably within the time span of that generation.
    Since then, the Union continues to do dirty business with regimes that have a dismal human rights record while at the same time promoting causes that Lincoln would have found abhorrent. In the meantime mental and spiritual slavery is never in the sights of the LGBT army as they bloody the landscape with perversity.
    I, for one would welcome the courage, honor and nobleness of a Robert E. Lee.

    • ELC

      Lee was a great man. I think one of the great tragedies of the country’s history is that Lee was lost to the federal army when he decided his loyalty to Virginia outranked his loyalty to the United States.

    • Struble

      The LGBT army must be outfought and outcast. A Robert E. Lee would be welcome. Better to risk death than live comfortably in a country where men marry men.

      • goral

        The JV president called isis JV’s. That’s what many think of the mixed up gay BLT sandwich. Nobody is calling the Islamists JV anymore. Same thing is in store at the gay gourmet.